I asked this question several months ago, and I still haven't found a reasonable way to tell IDEA to use source dependencies in preference to Maven dependencies without a great deal of busy-work manually changing poms between snapshot and release versions.
Suppose modules B and C depend on module A. Since B and C are released on a regular basis to a continuous integration/delivery environment, they never depend on a snapshot of A because any release of B and C could potentially make its way to production if it passes all the rests. In fact, module A is never published as a snapshot anywhere (nor are B and C). In other words, there are no scenarios in which either local snapshots or snapshots residing in a binary repository are used to resolve dependencies. Only versioned dependencies are used at the Maven level. Thus, when editing A, B and C together in a single IDEA project, it is necessary to tell IDEA to resolve the dependencies at the local source code (module) level rather than via Maven. Furthermore, it must do this *without* requiring B and C's poms to be updated to point to a snaphot version of A.
I have not found a way to accomplish this. If I add a module dependency on A in B and C and move it to the top of the dependency list (above the imported Maven dependencies), it is moved to the bottom of the list as soon as I close the dependencies dialog, causing the versioned Maven dependency to be preferred over the local source code for A. Moreover, even if this kind of explicit override worked, it wouldn't be ideal because it requires hard-coding B and C's dependency on A in IDEA's proprietry module system, even though the dependency relationship is already expressed in the Maven pom files. The goal is for IDEA to recognize that, although these are Maven modules, when working with them locally it should always prefer the local source code to the Maven dependencies (without requiring the poms for B and C to point to a snapshot version of A).
This is something that is easily accomplished in Eclipse by telling it to prefer local source over Maven dependencies. But in IDEA there does not appear to be a way to do this, short of going into all the poms and changing the versions and dependencies to be snapshots.
Here is another example of someone apparently trying to use IDEA in conjunction with a similar CI/CD process: